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SAE-AISI P20 (T51620) Low-Carbon Mould Steel

SAE-AISI P20 steel is a tool steel. P20 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. T51620 is the UNS number.

The properties of SAE-AISI P20 steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare SAE-AISI P20 steel to: tool steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

540 to 1050 MPa 79 to 150 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

260 J/g

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

45 W/m-K 26 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.5 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.8 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

21 MJ/kg 8.9 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

52 L/kg 6.2 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

2.6

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

19 to 37 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

19 to 29 points

Thermal Diffusivity

12 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

18 to 35 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 95.2 to 98.5
Chromium (Cr) 0.4 to 2.0
Manganese (Mn) 0.35 to 0.71
Silicon (Si) 0.2 to 0.8
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.3 to 0.55
Carbon (C) 0.28 to 0.4
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.25
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.030
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A681: Standard Specification for Tool Steels Alloy

Tool Steels, 5th ed., George Roberts et al., 1998

Tool Steels: Properties and Performance, Rafael A. Mesquita (editor), 2016

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015