# Sandstone

Sandstone is a type of common industrial natural stone. It has the lowest tensile strength and the highest thermal conductivity among natural stone materials. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare sandstone to other natural stone materials (top) and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Compressive (Crushing) Strength

120 *MPa* 18 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

38 *GPa* 5.5 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.25

Shear Modulus

15 *GPa* 2.2 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

4.0 *MPa* 0.58 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 *°C* 750 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

880 *J/kg-K* 0.21 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

5.6 *W/m-K* 3.2 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

10 *µm/m-K*

## Other Material Properties

Density

2.6 *g/cm ^{3}* 160

*lb/ft*

^{3}Dielectric Strength (Breakdown Potential)

8.5 *kV/mm* 0.33 *V/mil*

## Common Calculations

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

8.1 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

43 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

0.43 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

2.1 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

2.4 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

0.75 *points*

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015