# Spheroidized and Cold Drawn (+AC+C) 1.0434 Steel

EN 1.0434 +AC+C steel is EN 1.0434 steel in the spheroidized and cold-drawn condition. It has the lowest ductility compared to the other variants of EN 1.0434 steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.0434 +AC+C steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

140

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

12 *%*

Fatigue Strength

220 *MPa* 32 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

68 *%*

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

280 *MPa* 41 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

470 *MPa* 68 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

350 *MPa* 51 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 *°C* 750 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 *°C* 2670 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2590 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

52 *W/m-K* 30 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

12 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.0 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.0 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 *% relative*

Density

7.9 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.4 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

18 *MJ/kg* 7.9 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

46 *L/kg* 5.5 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

49 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

330 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

16 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

17 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

14 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

15 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 98.8 to 99.18 | |

Mn | 0.65 to 0.85 | |

C | 0.15 to 0.19 | |

Si | 0 to 0.1 | |

Al | 0.020 to 0.060 | |

P | 0 to 0.025 | |

S | 0 to 0.025 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

EN 10263-2: Steel rod, bars and wire for cold heading and cold extrusion - Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for steels not intended for heat treatment after cold working

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015