# Transformed-Beta Condition Grade 18 Titanium

Transformed-beta grade 18 titanium is grade 18 titanium in the transformed beta condition. It has the lowest strength compared to the other variants of grade 18 titanium. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare transformed-beta grade 18 titanium to: wrought titaniums (top), all titanium alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 *GPa* 15 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

13 *%*

Fatigue Strength

330 *MPa* 49 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.32

Reduction in Area

23 *%*

Shear Modulus

40 *GPa* 5.8 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

420 *MPa* 61 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

690 *MPa* 100 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

550 *MPa* 80 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

410 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

330 *°C* 630 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1640 *°C* 2980 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1590 *°C* 2890 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

550 *J/kg-K* 0.13 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

8.3 *W/m-K* 4.8 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

9.9 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

1.3 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.7 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Density

4.5 *g/cm ^{3}* 280

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

41 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

670 *MJ/kg* 290 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

270 *L/kg* 33 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

87 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1430 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

35 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

43 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

39 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

3.4 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

47 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Ti | 92.5 to 95.5 | |

Al | 2.5 to 3.5 | |

V | 2.0 to 3.0 | |

Fe | 0 to 0.25 | |

O | 0 to 0.15 | |

Pd | 0.040 to 0.080 | |

C | 0 to 0.080 | |

N | 0 to 0.030 | |

H | 0 to 0.015 | |

res. | 0 to 0.4 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

ASTM B861: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Seamless Pipe

ASTM B381: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings

ASTM B265: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate

ASTM B348: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets

Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Christoph Leyens and Manfred Peters (editors), 2003

Titanium, 2nd ed., G. Lutjering and J. C. Williams, 2007

Aerospace Materials, Brian Cantor et al. (editors), 2001

Environmental Degradation of Advanced and Traditional Engineering Materials, Lloyd H. Hihara et al., 2014.