# Transformed-Beta Condition Grade 28 Titanium

Transformed-beta grade 28 titanium is grade 28 titanium in the transformed beta condition. It has the lowest strength compared to the other variants of grade 28 titanium. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare transformed-beta grade 28 titanium to: wrought titaniums (top), all titanium alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 *GPa* 15 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

13 *%*

Fatigue Strength

330 *MPa* 49 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.32

Reduction in Area

22 *%*

Shear Modulus

40 *GPa* 5.8 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

420 *MPa* 61 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

690 *MPa* 100 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

550 *MPa* 80 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

410 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

330 *°C* 630 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1640 *°C* 2980 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1590 *°C* 2890 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

550 *J/kg-K* 0.13 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

8.3 *W/m-K* 4.8 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

9.9 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

1.3 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.7 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

36 *% relative*

Density

4.5 *g/cm ^{3}* 280

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

37 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

600 *MJ/kg* 260 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

370 *L/kg* 44 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

87 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1420 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

35 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

43 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

39 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

3.4 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

47 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Ti | 92.4 to 95.4 | |

Al | 2.5 to 3.5 | |

V | 2.0 to 3.0 | |

Fe | 0 to 0.25 | |

Ru | 0.080 to 0.14 | |

O | 0 to 0.15 | |

C | 0 to 0.080 | |

N | 0 to 0.030 | |

H | 0 to 0.015 | |

res. | 0 to 0.4 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

Titanium Alloys: Modelling of Microstructure, Properties, and Applications, Wei Sha and Savko Malinov, 2009

ASTM B861: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Seamless Pipe

ASTM B381: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings

ASTM B265: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate

ASTM B348: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets

Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Christoph Leyens and Manfred Peters (editors), 2003

Titanium, 2nd ed., G. Lutjering and J. C. Williams, 2007

Environmental Degradation of Advanced and Traditional Engineering Materials, Lloyd H. Hihara et al., 2014.