# UNS C12600 Fire-Refined Tough Pitch Copper

C12600 copper is a lightly alloyed grade of copper, formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the O61 (annealed) temper.

It has a fairly high ductility among wrought coppers. In addition, it has a moderately low thermal conductivity and a moderately low electrical conductivity.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare C12600 copper to: wrought coppers (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

120 *GPa* 17 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

56 *%*

Poisson's Ratio

0.34

Shear Modulus

56 *GPa* 8.1 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

190 *MPa* 28 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

270 *MPa* 39 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

69 *MPa* 10 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

210 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

200 *°C* 390 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1080 *°C* 1980 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1030 *°C* 1880 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

390 *J/kg-K* 0.092 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

130 *W/m-K* 77 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

17 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

29 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

29 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

30 *% relative*

Density

8.9 *g/cm ^{3}* 560

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

2.6 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

41 *MJ/kg* 18 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

310 *L/kg* 37 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

21 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

7.2 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

18 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

8.2 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

10 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

39 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

9.5 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Among wrought copper alloys, the composition of C12600 copper is notable for including phosphorus (P). Phosphorus is used as an alloy deoxidizer, and to reduce vulnerability to dezincification.

Cu | 99.5 to 99.8 | |

P | 0.2 to 0.4 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.