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UNS C32000 Leaded Red Brass

C32000 brass is a brass formulated for primary forming into wrought products. It has a moderately high thermal conductivity and a moderately high electrical conductivity among wrought brasses.

The properties of C32000 brass include three common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare C32000 brass to: wrought brasses (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 16 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

6.8 to 29 %

Poisson's Ratio


Shear Modulus

41 GPa 6.0 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

180 to 280 MPa 26 to 40 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

270 to 470 MPa 40 to 69 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

78 to 390 MPa 11 to 56 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

190 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

170 °C 340 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1020 °C 1880 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

990 °C 1820 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

380 J/kg-K 0.091 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

160 W/m-K 90 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

19 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

36 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

37 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

28 % relative


8.7 g/cm3 540 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

42 MJ/kg 18 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

310 L/kg 37 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

30 to 59 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

28 to 680 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

7.1 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

18 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

8.8 to 15 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

11 to 16 points

Thermal Diffusivity

47 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

9.5 to 16 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought copper alloys, the composition of C32000 brass is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of lead (Pb) and including nickel (Ni). Lead is used to improve machinability and bearing properties, at the cost of toxicity. Nickel is used to improve strength (particularly at elevated temperatures) and corrosion resistance.

Copper (Cu)Cu 83.5 to 86.5
Zinc (Zn)Zn 10.6 to 15
Lead (Pb)Pb 1.5 to 2.2
Nickel (Ni)Ni 0 to 0.25
Iron (Fe)Fe 0 to 0.1
Residualsres. 0 to 0.4

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM B140: Standard Specification for Copper-Zinc-Lead (Red Brass or Hardware Bronze) Rod, Bar, and Shapes

ASM Specialty Handbook: Copper and Copper Alloys, J. R. Davis (editor), 2001