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UNS C52400 Phosphor Bronze

C52400 bronze is a bronze formulated for primary forming into wrought products. C52400 is the UNS number for this material. Older literature may refer to this material as ASTM Phosphor Bronze D, but this is now discouraged.

It has a fairly high base cost among wrought bronzes. In addition, it has a fairly low melting temperature and a moderately low heat capacity.

The properties of C52400 bronze include seven common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare C52400 bronze to: wrought bronzes (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 16 x 106 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.34

Rockwell B Hardness

50 to 100

Rockwell Superficial 30T Hardness

54 to 84

Shear Modulus

41 GPa 5.9 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

450 to 880 MPa 65 to 130 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

190 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

170 °C 340 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1000 °C 1830 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

840 °C 1550 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

370 J/kg-K 0.088 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

50 W/m-K 29 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

18 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

11 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

11 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

35 % relative

Density

8.8 g/cm3 550 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

58 MJ/kg 25 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

390 L/kg 46 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

6.9 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

18 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

14 to 28 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

15 to 23 points

Thermal Diffusivity

15 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

17 to 32 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought copper alloys, the composition of C52400 bronze is notable for including phosphorus (P) and tin (Sn). Phosphorus is used as an alloy deoxidizer, and to reduce vulnerability to dezincification. Tin is used to improve strength, bearing properties, and corrosion resistance against certain types of media.

Copper (Cu) 87.8 to 91
Tin (Sn) 9.0 to 11
Phosphorus (P) 0.030 to 0.35
Zinc (Zn) 0 to 0.2
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.1
Lead (Pb) 0 to 0.050
Residuals 0 to 0.5

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM B139: Standard Specification for Phosphor Bronze Rod, Bar, and Shapes

ASTM B103: Standard Specification for Phosphor Bronze Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

ASM Specialty Handbook: Copper and Copper Alloys, J. R. Davis (editor), 2001

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015