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UNS C61400 (CW303G) Aluminum Bronze

C61400 bronze is a bronze formulated for primary forming into wrought products. CW303G is the EN numeric designation for this material. C61400 is the UNS number. Additionally, the EN chemical designation is CuAl8Fe3. And the British Standard (BS) designation is CA106. Older literature may refer to this material as ASTM Aluminum Bronze Type D, but this is now discouraged.

It has a moderately high melting temperature and can have a moderately high ductility among wrought bronzes.

The properties of C61400 bronze include four common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare C61400 bronze to: wrought bronzes (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 17 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

34 to 40 %

Poisson's Ratio


Shear Modulus

43 GPa 6.2 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

370 to 380 MPa 53 to 56 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

540 to 570 MPa 78 to 83 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

220 to 270 MPa 32 to 38 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

220 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

220 °C 420 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1050 °C 1910 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1040 °C 1910 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

420 J/kg-K 0.1 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

67 W/m-K 39 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

18 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

14 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

15 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

28 % relative


8.5 g/cm3 530 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.0 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

48 MJ/kg 21 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

360 L/kg 44 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

160 to 170 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

210 to 310 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

7.5 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

19 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

18 to 19 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

17 to 18 points

Thermal Diffusivity

19 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

18 to 20 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought copper alloys, the composition of C61400 bronze is notable for including aluminum (Al) and phosphorus (P). Aluminum is used to add strength and oxidation resistance. Phosphorus is used as an alloy deoxidizer, and to reduce vulnerability to dezincification.

Copper (Cu)Cu 86 to 92.5
Aluminum (Al)Al 6.0 to 8.0
Iron (Fe)Fe 1.5 to 3.5
Manganese (Mn)Mn 0 to 1.0
Zinc (Zn)Zn 0 to 1.0
Phosphorus (P)P 0 to 0.015
Lead (Pb)Pb 0 to 0.010
Residualsres. 0 to 0.5

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM B169: Standard Specification for Aluminum Bronze Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

ASTM B150: Standard Specification for Aluminum Bronze Rod, Bar, and Shapes

ASM Specialty Handbook: Copper and Copper Alloys, J. R. Davis (editor), 2001