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UNS C94400 Leaded Tin Bronze

C94400 bronze is a bronze formulated for casting. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-fabricated (no temper or treatment) condition. C94400 is the UNS number for this material. Additionally, the common industry name is 81-8-11.

It has a very low melting temperature among cast bronzes. In addition, it has a fairly low heat capacity and a fairly low tensile strength.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare C94400 bronze to: cast bronzes (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

55

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

100 GPa 15 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

18 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.35

Shear Modulus

37 GPa 5.4 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

220 MPa 32 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

110 MPa 16 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

180 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

150 °C 300 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

940 °C 1730 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

790 °C 1450 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

350 J/kg-K 0.083 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

52 W/m-K 30 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

19 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

10 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

9.9 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

32 % relative

Density

9.1 g/cm3 570 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

54 MJ/kg 23 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

390 L/kg 46 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

33 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

60 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

6.1 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

17 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

6.8 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

9.0 points

Thermal Diffusivity

17 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

8.3 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast copper alloys, the composition of C94400 bronze is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of lead (Pb). Lead is used to improve machinability and bearing properties, at the cost of toxicity. It also adds pressure tightness to castings.

Copper (Cu) 76.1 to 84
Lead (Pb) 9.0 to 12
Tin (Sn) 7.0 to 9.0
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 1.0
Zinc (Zn) 0 to 0.8
Antimony (Sb) 0 to 0.8
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.15
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.080
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.050
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.0050
Aluminum (Al) 0 to 0.0050

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM B66: Standard Specification for Bronze Castings for Steam Locomotive Wearing Parts

ASM Specialty Handbook: Copper and Copper Alloys, J. R. Davis (editor), 2001