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UNS C94900 Leaded Nickel-Tin Bronze

C94900 bronze is a bronze formulated for casting. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-fabricated (no temper or treatment) condition. It has a fairly high electrical conductivity and a moderately high melting temperature among cast bronzes.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare C94900 bronze to: cast bronzes (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 16 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

17 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.34

Shear Modulus

41 GPa 5.9 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

300 MPa 43 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

130 MPa 18 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

190 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

170 °C 340 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

980 °C 1800 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

910 °C 1660 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

370 J/kg-K 0.088 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Expansion

18 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

14 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

14 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

32 % relative

Density

8.8 g/cm3 550 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

55 MJ/kg 23 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

350 L/kg 42 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

41 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

72 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

6.9 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

18 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

9.4 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

11 points

Thermal Shock Resistance

11 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast copper alloys, the composition of C94900 bronze is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni). Lead is used to improve machinability and bearing properties, at the cost of toxicity. It also adds pressure tightness to castings. Nickel is used to improve strength (particularly at elevated temperatures) and corrosion resistance. It also creates the need for additional care during casting.

Copper (Cu) 79 to 81
Nickel (Ni) 4.0 to 6.0
Tin (Sn) 4.0 to 6.0
Lead (Pb) 4.0 to 6.0
Zinc (Zn) 4.0 to 6.0
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.3
Antimony (Sb) 0 to 0.25
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 0.1
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.080
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.050
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.0050
Aluminum (Al) 0 to 0.0050
Residuals 0 to 0.8

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, ASM Handbook vol. 2, ASM International, 1993