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UNS C97400 Leaded Nickel Silver

C97400 nickel silver is a copper-nickel alloy formulated for casting. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-fabricated (no temper or treatment) condition.

It has a fairly low tensile strength among cast copper-nickels. In addition, it has a moderately low heat capacity and a fairly low base cost.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare C97400 nickel silver to: cast copper-nickels (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

70

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

120 GPa 17 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

20 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.33

Shear Modulus

44 GPa 6.3 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

260 MPa 38 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

120 MPa 17 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

190 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

180 °C 350 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1100 °C 2010 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1070 °C 1960 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

380 J/kg-K 0.090 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

27 W/m-K 16 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

18 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

6.0 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

6.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

33 % relative

Density

8.6 g/cm3 540 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

4.1 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

64 MJ/kg 28 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

320 L/kg 39 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

43 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

59 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

7.5 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

19 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

8.5 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

11 points

Thermal Diffusivity

8.3 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

8.8 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast copper alloys, the composition of C97400 nickel silver is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). Nickel is used to improve strength (particularly at elevated temperatures) and corrosion resistance. It also creates the need for additional care during casting. Lead is used to improve machinability and bearing properties, at the cost of toxicity. It also adds pressure tightness to castings.

Copper (Cu) 58 to 61
Nickel (Ni) 15.5 to 17
Zinc (Zn) 10 to 19.5
Lead (Pb) 4.5 to 5.5
Tin (Sn) 2.5 to 3.5
Iron (Fe) 0 to 1.5
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 0.5
Residuals 0 to 1.0

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, ASM Handbook vol. 2, ASM International, 1993

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015