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UNS S44700 (29-4) Stainless Steel

S44700 stainless steel is a ferritic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. S44700 is the UNS number for this material. 29-4 is the common industry name.

It has a fairly high base cost among wrought ferritic stainless steels. In addition, it has a fairly high embodied energy and a moderately high tensile strength.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare S44700 stainless steel to: wrought ferritic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

200

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

210 GPa 30 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

23 %

Fatigue Strength

300 MPa 43 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.27

Reduction in Area

45 %

Rockwell C Hardness

17

Shear Modulus

82 GPa 12 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

380 MPa 55 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

600 MPa 86 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

450 MPa 65 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

300 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

460 °C 870 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

1100 °C 2010 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Expansion

11 µm/m-K

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

18 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.6 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

49 MJ/kg 21 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

180 L/kg 22 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

42

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

480 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

15 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

21 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 points

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of S44700 stainless steel is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of chromium (Cr). Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance.

Iron (Fe) 64.9 to 68.5
Chromium (Cr) 28 to 30
Molybdenum (Mo) 3.5 to 4.2
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 0.3
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.2
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.15
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.15
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.020
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.020
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.010

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A493: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Wire and Wire Rods for Cold Heading and Cold Forging

ASTM A479: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John C. Lippold and Damian J. Kotecki, 2005

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys, ASM Handbook vol. 1, ASM International, 1993

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010