# Warm Worked Low Carbon Co-28Cr-6Mo Alloy

Warm worked R31537 cobalt is R31537 cobalt in the warm worked condition. It has the highest strength compared to the other variants of R31537 cobalt. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare warm worked R31537 cobalt to other cobalt alloys (top) and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

220 *GPa* 32 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

14 *%*

Fatigue Strength

480 *MPa* 70 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

14 *%*

Rockwell C Hardness

35

Shear Modulus

87 *GPa* 13 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

1340 *MPa* 190 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

940 *MPa* 140 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

320 *J/g*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1360 *°C* 2480 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1290 *°C* 2360 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

450 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

13 *W/m-K* 7.3 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

13 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.0 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.1 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Density

8.4 *g/cm ^{3}* 530

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

8.1 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

110 *MJ/kg* 46 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

530 *L/kg* 63 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

160 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1990 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

15 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

44 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

32 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

3.4 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

32 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Co | 58.9 to 69 | |

Cr | 26 to 30 | |

Mo | 5.0 to 7.0 | |

Mn | 0 to 1.0 | |

Si | 0 to 1.0 | |

Ni | 0 to 1.0 | |

Fe | 0 to 0.75 | |

N | 0 to 0.25 | |

C | 0 to 0.14 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

ISO 5832-12: Implants for Surgery - Metallic Materials - Part 12: Wrought Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy

ASTM F1537: Standard Specification for Wrought Cobalt-28Chromium-6Molybdenum Alloys for Surgical Implants (UNS R31537, UNS R31538, and UNS R31539)

ASTM F799: Standard Specification for Cobalt-28Chromium-6Molybdenum Alloy Forgings for Surgical Implants (UNS R31537, R31538, R31539)

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015