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AISI 316 (1.4401, 1.4436, S31600) Stainless Steel

AISI 316 stainless steel is an austenitic stainless steel. 316 is the AISI designation for this material. 1.4401 is the EN numeric designation. S31600 is the UNS number. Additionally, the EN chemical designation is X5CrNiMo17-12-2. And the British Standard (BS) designation is 316S16.

It has seven common variants, each represented as a separate material. The material properties section shows ranges encompassing all variants. To see the details of each variant on a separate page, follow the links in the Variant Materials section further below.

Mechanical Properties

Graph bars compare AISI 316 stainless steel to other materials. From top to bottom: austenitic stainless steel, iron alloys, and the entire database.

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

220 GPa 32 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

8.1 to 55 %

Modulus of Resilience (Unit Resilience)

120 to 1690 kJ/m3

Poisson's Ratio


Rockwell B Hardness


Shear Modulus

82 GPa 12 x 106 psi

Strength to Weight Ratio

66 to 150 kN-m/kg

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

530 to 1200 MPa 76 to 170 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

230 to 870 MPa 34 to 130 x 103 psi

Unit Rupture Work (Ultimate Resilience)

88 to 260 MJ/m3

Thermal Properties

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1380 °C 2510 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

450 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

15 W/m-K 8.8 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Diffusivity

4.3 m2/s

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Other Material Properties

Base Metal Price

32 % relative

Calomel Potential

-50 mV


7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

13 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

15 % IACS

Electrical Resistivity Order of Magnitude

-6.5 10x Ω-m

Embodied Carbon

3.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

53 MJ/kg 23 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

150 L/kg 18 gal/lb

PREN (Pitting Resistance)


Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 62 to 72
Chromium (Cr) 16 to 18.5
Nickel (Ni) 10 to 14
Molybdenum (Mo) 2.0 to 3.0
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 2.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.1
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.080
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.045
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Variant Materials

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

ASTM A276: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes

ASTM A473: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Forgings

ASTM A479: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

ASTM A666: Standard Specification for Annealed or Cold-Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Flat Bar

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

EN 10088-1: Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels

EN 10088-2: Stainless steels - Technical delivery conditions for sheet/plate and strip of corrosion resisting steels for general purposes