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Grade 38 Titanium vs. Grade 31 Titanium

Both grade 38 titanium and grade 31 titanium are titanium alloys. Both are furnished in the annealed condition. They have a moderately high 92% of their average alloy composition in common. There are 30 material properties with values for both materials. Properties with values for just one material (1, in this case) are not shown.

For each property being compared, the top bar is grade 38 titanium and the bottom bar is grade 31 titanium.

Metric UnitsUS Customary Units

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus, GPa 110
110
Elongation at Break, % 11
20
Fatigue Strength, MPa 530
300
Poisson's Ratio 0.32
0.32
Reduction in Area, % 29
34
Shear Modulus, GPa 40
41
Shear Strength, MPa 600
320
Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS), MPa 1000
510
Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof), MPa 910
450

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion, J/g 410
420
Maximum Temperature: Mechanical, °C 330
320
Melting Completion (Liquidus), °C 1620
1660
Melting Onset (Solidus), °C 1570
1610
Specific Heat Capacity, J/kg-K 550
540
Thermal Conductivity, W/m-K 8.0
21
Thermal Expansion, µm/m-K 9.3
8.7

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume, % IACS 1.2
3.4
Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific), % IACS 2.4
6.9

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Density, g/cm3 4.5
4.5
Embodied Carbon, kg CO2/kg material 35
36
Embodied Energy, MJ/kg 560
600
Embodied Water, L/kg 160
230

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work), MJ/m3 110
99
Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience), kJ/m3 3840
940
Stiffness to Weight: Axial, points 13
13
Stiffness to Weight: Bending, points 35
35
Strength to Weight: Axial, points 62
32
Strength to Weight: Bending, points 49
32
Thermal Diffusivity, mm2/s 3.2
8.5
Thermal Shock Resistance, points 72
39

Alloy Composition

Aluminum (Al), % 3.5 to 4.5
0
Carbon (C), % 0 to 0.080
0 to 0.080
Cobalt (Co), % 0
0.2 to 0.8
Hydrogen (H), % 0 to 0.015
0 to 0.015
Iron (Fe), % 1.2 to 1.8
0 to 0.3
Nitrogen (N), % 0 to 0.030
0 to 0.050
Oxygen (O), % 0.2 to 0.3
0 to 0.35
Palladium (Pd), % 0
0.040 to 0.080
Titanium (Ti), % 89.9 to 93.1
97.9 to 99.76
Vanadium (V), % 2.0 to 3.0
0
Residuals, % 0 to 0.4
0 to 0.4