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1085 (Al99.85) Aluminum

1085 aluminum is a 1000-series aluminum alloy: it is considered commercially pure, and is formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1085 is the Aluminum Association (AA) designation for this material. In European standards, it will be given as EN AW-1085. Additionally, the EN chemical designation is Al99,85. And the UNS number is A91085.

It originally received its standard designation in 1954.

The properties of 1085 aluminum include nine common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare 1085 aluminum to: 1000-series alloys (top), all aluminum alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

68 GPa 9.9 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

4.5 to 39 %

Fatigue Strength

22 to 49 MPa 3.2 to 7.1 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio


Shear Modulus

26 GPa 3.7 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

48 to 79 MPa 7.0 to 11 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

73 to 140 MPa 11 to 20 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

17 to 120 MPa 2.5 to 17 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

400 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

170 °C 340 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

640 °C 1190 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

640 °C 1180 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

900 J/kg-K 0.22 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

230 W/m-K 130 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

23 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

61 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

200 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

9.5 % relative


2.7 g/cm3 170 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

8.3 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

160 MJ/kg 67 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

1200 L/kg 140 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

4.8 to 21 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

2.1 to 110 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

50 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

7.5 to 14 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

14 to 22 points

Thermal Diffusivity

94 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

3.3 to 6.1 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought aluminum alloys, the composition of 1085 aluminum is notable for including gallium (Ga) and vanadium (V). Gallium is used to improve corrosion resistance and to modify an alloy's response to etching, brightening, and similar treatments. Vanadium is used to reduce grain size and increase recrystallization temperature.

Aluminum (Al)Al 99.85 to 100
Iron (Fe)Fe 0 to 0.12
Silicon (Si)Si 0 to 0.1
Vanadium (V)V 0 to 0.050
Zinc (Zn)Zn 0 to 0.030
Copper (Cu)Cu 0 to 0.030
Gallium (Ga)Ga 0 to 0.030
Manganese (Mn)Mn 0 to 0.020
Titanium (Ti)Ti 0 to 0.020
Magnesium (Mg)Mg 0 to 0.020
Residualsres. 0 to 0.010

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

Aluminum: Properties and Physical Metallurgy, John E. Hatch (editor), 1984

ISO 6361-2: Wrought aluminium and aluminium alloys - Sheets, strips and plates - Part 2: Mechanical properties

EN 573-3: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Chemical composition and form of wrought products. Chemical composition and form of products

Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, ASM Handbook vol. 2, ASM International, 1993