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2014 (AlCu4SiMg, 3.1255, A92014) Aluminum

2014 aluminum is a 2000-series aluminum alloy: the main alloying addition is copper, and it is formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 2014 is the Aluminum Association (AA) designation for this material. In European standards, it will be given as EN AW-2014. AlCu4SiMg is the EN chemical designation. A92014 is the UNS number. Additionally, the AFNOR (French) designation is A-U4SG.

It has been in use since 1928, but has only received its standard designation in 1954. This material is well established: the Further Reading section below cites a number of published standards, and that list is not necessarily exhaustive.

It can have the lowest ductility among the 2000-series alloys in the database.

The properties of 2014 aluminum include 17 common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare 2014 aluminum to: 2000-series alloys (top), all aluminum alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

72 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

1.5 to 16 %

Fatigue Strength

90 to 160 MPa 13 to 24 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.33

Shear Modulus

27 GPa 3.9 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

130 to 290 MPa 18 to 43 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

190 to 500 MPa 28 to 73 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

100 to 440 MPa 15 to 63 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

400 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

210 °C 410 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

630 °C 1160 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

510 °C 940 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

870 J/kg-K 0.21 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

150 W/m-K 89 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

23 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

40 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

120 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

11 % relative

Density

3.0 g/cm3 190 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

8.1 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

150 MJ/kg 64 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

1130 L/kg 140 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

6.6 to 56 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

76 to 1330 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

46 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

18 to 46 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

25 to 46 points

Thermal Diffusivity

58 m2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

8.4 to 22 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought aluminum alloys, the composition of 2014 aluminum is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of copper (Cu) and including zirconium (Zr). Copper is used to improve strength. This comes at the cost of a decrease in corrosion resistance and weldability. Zirconium is used to increase an alloy's recrystallization temperature, which increases the temperature at which the alloy can be used without permanent loss of mechanical properties.

Aluminum (Al) 90.4 to 95
Copper (Cu) 3.9 to 5.0
Silicon (Si) 0.5 to 1.2
Manganese (Mn) 0.4 to 1.2
Magnesium (Mg) 0.2 to 0.8
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.7
Zinc (Zn) 0 to 0.25
Zirconium (Zr) 0 to 0.2
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.15
Chromium (Cr) 0 to 0.1
Residuals 0 to 0.15

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 586-2: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Forgings. Mechanical properties and additional property requirements.

ASTM B247: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Die Forgings, Hand Forgings, and Rolled Ring Forgings

ASTM B210: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes

ASTM B211: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Bar, Rod, and Wire

Aerospace Materials, Brian Cantor et al. (editors), 2001

ASTM B221: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes

Handbook of Aluminum Bonding Technology and Data, J. D. Minford, 1993

Environmental Degradation of Advanced and Traditional Engineering Materials, Lloyd H. Hihara et al., 2014.

EN 754-2: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Cold drawn rod/bar and tube. Mechanical properties

ASTM B209: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate