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AISI 403 (S40300) Stainless Steel

AISI 403 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 403 is the AISI designation for this material. S40300 is the UNS number. Additionally, the British Standard (BS) designation is 403S17.

This material is well established: the Further Reading section below cites a number of published standards, and that list is not necessarily exhaustive.

It has the lowest base cost and a moderately low embodied energy among wrought martensitic stainless steels.

The properties of AISI 403 stainless steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare AISI 403 stainless steel to: wrought martensitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

190 to 240

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

16 to 25 %

Fatigue Strength

200 to 340 MPa 29 to 50 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Reduction in Area

47 to 50 %

Rockwell B Hardness

83

Shear Modulus

76 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

340 to 480 MPa 49 to 70 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

530 to 780 MPa 77 to 110 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

280 to 570 MPa 41 to 83 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

390 °C 730 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

740 °C 1360 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2640 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1400 °C 2560 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

28 W/m-K 16 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

9.9 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.9 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

3.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

6.5 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

27 MJ/kg 11 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

99 L/kg 12 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

12

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 to 120 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

210 to 840 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

19 to 28 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

19 to 24 points

Thermal Diffusivity

7.6 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

20 to 29 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of AISI 403 stainless steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of chromium (Cr) and manganese (Mn). Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance. Manganese is used to improve ductility at elevated temperatures. It also permits a higher nitrogen content than would otherwise be possible.

Iron (Fe) 84.7 to 88.5
Chromium (Cr) 11.5 to 13
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.0
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.6
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.5
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.15
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A176: Standard Specification for Stainless and Heat-Resisting Chromium Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip

ASTM A473: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Forgings

ASTM A479: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

ASTM A276: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes

Creep-Resistant Steels, Fujio Abe et al. (editors), 2008

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, Jason Rowe (editor), 2012

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011