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AISI 410 (S41000) Stainless Steel

AISI 410 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 410 is the AISI designation for this material. S41000 is the UNS number. Additionally, the British Standard (BS) designation is 410S21.

This material is well established: the Further Reading section below cites a number of published standards, and that list is not necessarily exhaustive.

It has a moderately low embodied energy among the wrought martensitic stainless steels in the database.

The properties of AISI 410 stainless steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare AISI 410 stainless steel to: wrought martensitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

190 to 240

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

16 to 22 %

Fatigue Strength

190 to 350 MPa 28 to 50 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Reduction in Area

47 to 48 %

Shear Modulus

76 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

330 to 470 MPa 48 to 69 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

520 to 770 MPa 76 to 110 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

290 to 580 MPa 42 to 84 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

390 °C 730 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

710 °C 1300 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1530 °C 2790 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1480 °C 2700 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

30 W/m-K 17 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

11 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.9 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

3.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

7.0 % relative

Calomel Potential

-150 mV

Density

7.7 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

27 MJ/kg 12 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

100 L/kg 12 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

13

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

97 to 110 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

210 to 860 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

19 to 28 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

19 to 24 points

Thermal Diffusivity

8.1 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

18 to 26 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of AISI 410 stainless steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of chromium (Cr) and manganese (Mn). Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance. Manganese is used to improve ductility at elevated temperatures. It also permits a higher nitrogen content than would otherwise be possible.

Iron (Fe) 83.5 to 88.4
Chromium (Cr) 11.5 to 13.5
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.75
Carbon (C) 0.080 to 0.15
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A493: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Wire and Wire Rods for Cold Heading and Cold Forging

ASTM A473: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Forgings

ASTM A479: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A276: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes

Creep-Resistant Steels, Fujio Abe et al. (editors), 2008

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John C. Lippold and Damian J. Kotecki, 2005

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, Jason Rowe (editor), 2012

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels