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AISI 415 (S41500) Stainless Steel

AISI 415 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized and tempered condition. 415 is the AISI designation for this material. S41500 is the UNS number.

It has a moderately high base cost and a moderately high tensile strength among wrought martensitic stainless steels.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare AISI 415 stainless steel to: wrought martensitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

260

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

17 %

Fatigue Strength

430 MPa 62 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Reduction in Area

50 %

Rockwell C Hardness

28

Shear Modulus

76 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

550 MPa 80 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

900 MPa 130 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

700 MPa 100 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

390 °C 740 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

780 °C 1430 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2640 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1400 °C 2560 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

24 W/m-K 14 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

10 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.7 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

3.1 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

11 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

35 MJ/kg 15 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

110 L/kg 13 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

15

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

140 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1250 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

32 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

26 points

Thermal Diffusivity

6.4 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

33 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of AISI 415 stainless steel is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Nickel is primarily used to achieve a specific microstructure. In addition, it has a beneficial effect on mechanical properties and certain types of corrosion. Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance.

Iron (Fe) 77.8 to 84
Chromium (Cr) 11.5 to 14
Nickel (Ni) 3.5 to 5.5
Manganese (Mn) 0.5 to 1.0
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.5 to 1.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.6
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.050
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.030
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A479: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

Machining of Stainless Steels and Super Alloys: Traditional and Nontraditional Techniques, Helmi A. Youssef, 2016

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

Advanced Materials in Automotive Engineering, Jason Rowe (editor), 2012

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015