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ASTM A182 Grade F36 (K21001) Steel

ASTM A182 grade F36 is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized and tempered condition. F36 is the ASTM designation for this material. K21001 is the UNS number.

It has a very low ductility among wrought alloy steels in the same category. In addition, it has a moderately low thermal conductivity and a fairly high tensile strength.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A182 grade F36 to: wrought alloy steels in the same category (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

220

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

17 %

Fatigue Strength

330 MPa 48 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

440 MPa 63 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

710 MPa 100 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

490 MPa 71 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

410 °C 770 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

39 W/m-K 22 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.6 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.6 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

3.4 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.7 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

22 MJ/kg 9.6 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

53 L/kg 6.3 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

650 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

25 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

22 points

Thermal Diffusivity

10 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

21 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of ASTM A182 grade F36 is notable for including niobium (Nb) and nitrogen (N). Niobium is primarily used to improve yield strength. Nitrogen has a substantial strengthening effect, but may contribute to strain aging unless the steel is deoxidized with aluminum.

Iron (Fe) 95 to 97.1
Nickel (Ni) 1.0 to 1.3
Manganese (Mn) 0.8 to 1.2
Copper (Cu) 0.5 to 0.8
Silicon (Si) 0.25 to 0.5
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.25 to 0.5
Chromium (Cr) 0 to 0.3
Carbon (C) 0.1 to 0.17
Niobium (Nb) 0.015 to 0.045
Aluminum (Al) 0 to 0.050
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.030
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.025
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.020
Vanadium (V) 0 to 0.020

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service