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ASTM A182 Grade F3VCb (K31390) Steel

ASTM A182 grade F3VCb is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. F3VCb is the ASTM designation for this material. K31390 is the UNS number.

It has a fairly high embodied energy among wrought alloy steels in the same category. In addition, it has a moderately high base cost and a moderately high electrical conductivity.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A182 grade F3VCb to: wrought alloy steels in the same category (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

210

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

21 %

Fatigue Strength

320 MPa 47 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

50 %

Shear Modulus

74 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

420 MPa 61 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

670 MPa 97 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

460 MPa 67 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

470 °C 890 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1470 °C 2680 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1430 °C 2600 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

40 W/m-K 23 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.7 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.9 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

4.5 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

33 MJ/kg 14 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

64 L/kg 7.6 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

6.3

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

120 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

570 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

24 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

22 points

Thermal Diffusivity

11 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of ASTM A182 grade F3VCb is notable for including titanium (Ti) and niobium (Nb). Titanium is used to broadly improve mechanical properties. Niobium is primarily used to improve yield strength.

Iron (Fe) 93.8 to 95.8
Chromium (Cr) 2.7 to 3.3
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.9 to 1.1
Manganese (Mn) 0.3 to 0.6
Vanadium (V) 0.2 to 0.3
Carbon (C) 0.1 to 0.15
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.25
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.25
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.1
Niobium (Nb) 0.015 to 0.070
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.020
Calcium (Ca) 0.00050 to 0.015
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.015
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.010

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service