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EN 1.8523 (40CrMoV13-9) Nitriding Steel

EN 1.8523 steel is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the quenched and tempered condition. 1.8523 is the EN numeric designation for this material. 40CrMoV13-9 is the EN chemical designation.

It has a fairly low thermal conductivity among EN wrought alloy steels. In addition, it has a very high embodied energy and a fairly high base cost.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.8523 steel to: EN wrought alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

300

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

15 %

Fatigue Strength

530 MPa 76 x 103 psi

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

36 J 26 ft-lb

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

74 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

610 MPa 89 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

1000 MPa 150 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

800 MPa 120 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

260 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

480 °C 890 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2670 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

39 W/m-K 22 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.8 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

9.0 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

4.2 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.2 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

31 MJ/kg 13 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

64 L/kg 7.6 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

6.4

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

140 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1700 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

36 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

28 points

Thermal Diffusivity

10 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

29 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of EN 1.8523 steel is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of chromium (Cr) and including vanadium (V). Chromium is used to improve corrosion resistance and most mechanical properties (particularly at higher temperatures). Vanadium has a strong hardening effect, but this effect is particularly sensitive to the type of tempering.

Iron (Fe) 93.5 to 95.7
Chromium (Cr) 3.0 to 3.5
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.8 to 1.1
Manganese (Mn) 0.4 to 0.7
Carbon (C) 0.35 to 0.45
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.4
Vanadium (V) 0.15 to 0.25
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.035

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ISO 683-5: Heat treatable steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels - Part 5: Nitriding steels

EN 10250-3: Open die steel forgings for general engineering purposes - Part 3: Alloy special steels

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015