# ASTM A182 Grade F911 (K91061) Steel

ASTM A182 grade F911 is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the normalized and tempered condition. F911 is the ASTM designation for this material. K91061 is the UNS number.

It has a fairly low thermal conductivity among wrought alloy steels in the same category. In addition, it has a very high embodied energy and a very high base cost.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A182 grade F911 to: wrought alloy steels in the same category (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

220

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 28 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

20 *%*

Fatigue Strength

350 *MPa* 50 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Reduction in Area

46 *%*

Shear Modulus

76 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

430 *MPa* 63 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

690 *MPa* 100 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

500 *MPa* 73 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

600 *°C* 1110 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1480 *°C* 2690 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1440 *°C* 2620 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

26 *W/m-K* 15 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

13 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

9.2 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

10 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

9.5 *% relative*

Density

7.9 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

2.8 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

40 *MJ/kg* 17 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

90 *L/kg* 11 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

15

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

130 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

650 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

22 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

6.9 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of ASTM A182 grade F911 is notable for including tungsten (W) and zirconium (Zr). Tungsten interacts with other alloying elements to a greater extent than usual, which makes it hard to broadly characterize its effects. Zirconium is used to improve ductility.

Fe | 86.2 to 88.9 | |

Cr | 8.5 to 9.5 | |

W | 0.9 to 1.1 | |

Mo | 0.9 to 1.1 | |

Mn | 0.3 to 0.6 | |

Si | 0.1 to 0.5 | |

V | 0.18 to 0.25 | |

Ni | 0 to 0.4 | |

C | 0.090 to 0.13 | |

Nb | 0.060 to 0.1 | |

N | 0.040 to 0.090 | |

P | 0 to 0.020 | |

Al | 0 to 0.020 | |

S | 0 to 0.010 | |

Ti | 0 to 0.010 | |

Zr | 0 to 0.010 | |

B | 0.00030 to 0.0060 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Similar Alloys

## Further Reading

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service