# ASTM A283 Grade D Carbon Steel

ASTM A283 grade D is a type of ASTM A283 carbon steel. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-fabricated (no temper or treatment) condition. It has the highest strength and lowest ductility compared to the other variants of ASTM A283 carbon steel.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A283 grade D to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

140

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

26 *%*

Fatigue Strength

190 *MPa* 28 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

310 *MPa* 45 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

480 *MPa* 70 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

260 *MPa* 38 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 *°C* 750 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 *°C* 2670 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2590 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

52 *W/m-K* 30 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

12 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.1 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.1 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 *% relative*

Density

7.8 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.4 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

18 *MJ/kg* 7.9 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

46 *L/kg* 5.4 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

180 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

17 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

17 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

14 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

15 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 98.2 to 100 | |

Mn | 0 to 0.9 | |

Si | 0 to 0.4 | |

C | 0 to 0.27 | |

Cu | 0 to 0.2 | |

S | 0 to 0.040 | |

P | 0 to 0.035 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Similar Alloys

## Further Reading

ASTM A283: Standard Specification for Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015