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ASTM A356 Grade 2 (J12523) Cast Steel

ASTM A356 grade 2 is an alloy steel formulated for casting. Cited properties are appropriate for the heat treated (HT) condition. ASTM A356 Grade 2 is the ASTM designation for this material. J12523 is the UNS number.

It has a very low electrical conductivity among cast alloy steels. In addition, it has a very low tensile strength and a moderately low embodied energy.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A356 grade 2 to: cast alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

150

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

25 %

Fatigue Strength

200 MPa 28 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

39 %

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

510 MPa 74 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

270 MPa 39 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

410 °C 760 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1470 °C 2670 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1430 °C 2600 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

51 W/m-K 30 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.1 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.2 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.4 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

20 MJ/kg 8.6 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

47 L/kg 5.6 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

110 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

190 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

18 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

18 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

15 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast alloy steels, the composition of ASTM A356 grade 2 is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of molybdenum (Mo) and manganese (Mn). Molybdenum is used to facilitate tempering. In addition, it offers modest bonuses to a wide range of material properties. Manganese is used to improve hardenability and surface quality.

Iron (Fe) 97.7 to 99.55
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.45 to 0.65
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 0.7
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.6
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.25
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A356: Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Low Alloy, and Stainless Steel, Heavy-Walled for Steam Turbines