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ASTM A356 Grade 9 (J21610) Cast Steel

ASTM A356 grade 9 is an alloy steel formulated for casting. Cited properties are appropriate for the heat treated (HT) condition. ASTM A356 Grade 9 is the ASTM designation for this material. J21610 is the UNS number.

It has a very high embodied energy and a moderately low ductility among cast alloy steels.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A356 grade 9 to: cast alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

200

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

17 %

Fatigue Strength

310 MPa 45 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

50 %

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

670 MPa 97 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

460 MPa 67 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

260 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

440 °C 820 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1470 °C 2680 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1430 °C 2600 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

41 W/m-K 24 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.5 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.6 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

3.6 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

2.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

33 MJ/kg 14 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

56 L/kg 6.7 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

4.7

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

100 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

570 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

24 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

22 points

Thermal Diffusivity

11 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast alloy steels, the composition of ASTM A356 grade 9 is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of molybdenum (Mo) and including vanadium (V). Molybdenum is used to facilitate tempering. In addition, it offers modest bonuses to a wide range of material properties. Vanadium has a strong hardening effect, but this effect is particularly sensitive to the type of tempering.

Iron (Fe) 95.2 to 97.2
Chromium (Cr) 1.0 to 1.5
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.9 to 1.2
Manganese (Mn) 0.5 to 0.9
Silicon (Si) 0.2 to 0.6
Vanadium (V) 0.2 to 0.35
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.2
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A356: Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Carbon, Low Alloy, and Stainless Steel, Heavy-Walled for Steam Turbines