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ASTM A732 Grade 4Q Cast Steel

ASTM A732 grade 4Q is a type of ASTM A732 cast steel. Cited properties are appropriate for the quenched and tempered condition. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM A732 grade 4Q to: cast alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

290

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

5.0 %

Fatigue Strength

450 MPa 65 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

72 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

970 MPa 140 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

790 MPa 110 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

260 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2640 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2570 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

50 W/m-K 29 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.1 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.2 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.0 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

19 MJ/kg 8.2 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

47 L/kg 5.6 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

45 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1660 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

34 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

28 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

29 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 97.8 to 98.9
Manganese (Mn) 0.7 to 1.0
Silicon (Si) 0.2 to 1.0
Carbon (C) 0.45 to 0.55
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.5
Tungsten (W) 0 to 0.1
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.045
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A732: Standard Specification for Castings, Investment, Carbon and Low Alloy Steel for General Application, and Cobalt Alloy for High Strength at Elevated Temperatures

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015