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EN 1.1233 (56Mn4) Induction-Hardening Bearing Steel

EN 1.1233 steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1.1233 is the EN numeric designation for this material. 56Mn4 is the EN chemical designation.

It can have a moderately high tensile strength among the wrought carbon or non-alloy steels in the database.

The properties of EN 1.1233 steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.1233 steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

200 to 220

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

72 GPa 10 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

680 to 760 MPa 99 to 110 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

51 W/m-K 29 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.1 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.2 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.9 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

19 MJ/kg 8.1 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

47 L/kg 5.6 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

24 to 27 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

22 to 24 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

22 to 24 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 98 to 99.1
Manganese (Mn) 0.9 to 1.2
Carbon (C) 0.52 to 0.6
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.4
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.3
Aluminum (Al) 0 to 0.050
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025
Oxygen (O) 0 to 0.0020

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ISO 683-17: Heat-treated steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels - Part 17: Ball and roller bearing steels

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015