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ASTM Grade HD (28Cr-5Ni, J93005) Cast Stainless Steel

ASTM grade HD steel is a ferritic stainless steel formulated for casting. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-fabricated (no temper or treatment) condition. HD is the ASTM designation for this material. J93005 is the UNS number. And 28Cr-5Ni is the common industry name.

It has the highest base cost among cast ferritic stainless steels. In addition, it has the lowest electrical conductivity and the lowest thermal conductivity.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare ASTM grade HD steel to: cast ferritic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

9.1 %

Fatigue Strength

140 MPa 20 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.27

Shear Modulus

80 GPa 12 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

590 MPa 85 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

270 MPa 39 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

310 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

460 °C 850 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

1100 °C 2010 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1410 °C 2570 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1370 °C 2490 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

490 J/kg-K 0.12 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

16 W/m-K 9.2 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

11 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.1 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.5 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

17 % relative

Density

7.7 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.1 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

45 MJ/kg 19 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

180 L/kg 21 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

29

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

44 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

180 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

15 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

26 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

21 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 points

Thermal Diffusivity

4.3 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast stainless steels, the composition of ASTM grade HD steel is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of chromium (Cr). Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance.

Iron (Fe) 58.4 to 70
Chromium (Cr) 26 to 30
Nickel (Ni) 4.0 to 7.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 2.0
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.5
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.5
Molybdenum (Mo) 0 to 0.5
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.040

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A297: Standard Specification for Steel Castings, Iron-Chromium and Iron-Chromium-Nickel, Heat Resistant, for General Application

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012

Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels: Mechanism, Mitigation and Monitoring, H. S. Khatak and B. Raj (editors), 2002

Austenitic Stainless Steels: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties, P. Marshall, 1984

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010