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UNS S31100 (XM-26) Stainless Steel

S31100 stainless steel is a duplex stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition. XM-26 is the ASTM designation for this material. S31100 is the UNS number.

It has the highest tensile strength among wrought duplex stainless steels. In addition, it has the lowest ductility and a moderately high thermal conductivity.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare S31100 stainless steel to: wrought duplex stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

270

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

4.5 %

Fatigue Strength

330 MPa 48 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.27

Rockwell C Hardness

28

Shear Modulus

79 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

580 MPa 84 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

1000 MPa 150 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

710 MPa 100 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

300 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

470 °C 880 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

1100 °C 2010 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1380 °C 2510 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.12 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

16 W/m-K 9.1 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.0 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.4 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

16 % relative

Density

7.7 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.1 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

44 MJ/kg 19 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

170 L/kg 20 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

26

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

40 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

1240 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

36 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

29 points

Thermal Diffusivity

4.2 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

28 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of S31100 stainless steel is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of chromium (Cr) and including titanium (Ti). Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance. Titanium is used to broadly improve mechanical properties.

Iron (Fe) 63.6 to 69
Chromium (Cr) 25 to 27
Nickel (Ni) 6.0 to 7.0
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.25
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.060
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.045
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM A693: Standard Specification for Precipitation-Hardening Stainless and Heat-Resisting Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip

Duplex Stainless Steels, Iris Alvarez-Armas and Suzanne Degallaix-Moreuil (editors), 2009

Duplex Stainless Steels: Microstructure, Properties and Applications, Robert N. Gunn (editor), 1997

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010