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AWS E318 (W31910) Weld Metal

AWS E318 is a weld metal formulated for joining stainless steels. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-welded condition. E318 is the AWS designation for this material. W31910 is the UNS number. Additionally, the ISO numeric designation is ES318.

It has a moderately high base cost and a moderately high embodied energy among stainless steel welding fillers.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare AWS E318 to: stainless steel welding fillers (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

29 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

78 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

620 MPa 89 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

290 J/g

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1440 °C 2630 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1400 °C 2550 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

15 W/m-K 8.6 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

14 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.2 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.6 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

23 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

4.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

62 MJ/kg 27 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

160 L/kg 19 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

27

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

22 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

20 points

Thermal Diffusivity

4.0 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

16 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 57.6 to 69.5
Chromium (Cr) 17 to 20
Nickel (Ni) 11 to 14
Molybdenum (Mo) 2.0 to 3.0
Manganese (Mn) 0.5 to 2.5
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Niobium (Nb) 0 to 1.0
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.75
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.080
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

AWS A5.4: Specification for Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John C. Lippold and Damian J. Kotecki, 2005

Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels, Erich Folkhard et al., 2012