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Annealed (+A) 1.0034 Steel

EN 1.0034 +A steel is EN 1.0034 steel in the annealed condition. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.0034 +A steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

99

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

31 %

Fatigue Strength

140 MPa 20 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

230 MPa 33 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

340 MPa 50 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

180 MPa 26 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2670 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

53 W/m-K 31 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.0 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.0 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

18 MJ/kg 7.8 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

45 L/kg 5.4 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

90 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

84 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

12 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

14 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

11 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 98.7 to 100
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 0.7
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.35
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.15
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.045
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.045

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

EN 10296-1: Welded circular steel tubes for mechanical and general engineering purposes - Technical delivery conditions - Part 1: Non-alloy and alloy steel tubes

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015