Menu (ESC)

Annealed M41 Tool Steel

Annealed SAE-AISI M41 is SAE-AISI M41 steel in the annealed condition. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare annealed SAE-AISI M41 to: tool steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness


Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Poisson's Ratio


Shear Modulus

77 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

800 MPa 120 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

260 J/g

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1600 °C 2910 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1550 °C 2830 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

440 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

22 W/m-K 13 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

33 % relative


8.4 g/cm3 530 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

9.1 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

140 MJ/kg 59 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

120 L/kg 15 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)


Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

23 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

26 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

23 points

Thermal Diffusivity

6.0 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

25 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 73.4 to 78.9
Tungsten (W) 6.3 to 7.0
Cobalt (Co) 4.8 to 5.8
Chromium (Cr) 3.8 to 4.5
Molybdenum (Mo) 3.3 to 4.3
Vanadium (V) 1.8 to 2.3
Carbon (C) 1.1 to 1.2
Manganese (Mn) 0.2 to 0.6
Silicon (Si) 0.15 to 0.5
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.3
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.25
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.030
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

ASTM A600: Standard Specification for Tool Steel High Speed

Tool Steels, 5th ed., George Roberts et al., 1998

Tool Steels: Properties and Performance, Rafael A. Mesquita (editor), 2016

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015