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EN 1.0478 (P285QH) Non-Alloy Steel

EN 1.0478 steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the quenched and tempered condition. 1.0478 is the EN numeric designation for this material. P285QH is the EN chemical designation.

It has a moderately high embodied energy among wrought carbon or non-alloy steels. In addition, it has a moderately high base cost and a moderately high electrical conductivity.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.0478 steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

130

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

24 %

Fatigue Strength

170 MPa 25 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

280 MPa 41 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

440 MPa 64 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

230 MPa 34 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

49 W/m-K 28 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.3 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.2 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.5 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

20 MJ/kg 8.6 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

48 L/kg 5.8 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

90 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

150 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

16 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

16 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

14 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 96.9 to 99.4
Manganese (Mn) 0.6 to 1.4
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.4
Chromium (Cr) 0 to 0.3
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.3
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.2
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.18
Molybdenum (Mo) 0 to 0.080
Aluminum (Al) 0 to 0.060
Vanadium (V) 0 to 0.050
Niobium (Nb) 0 to 0.030
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.025
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.020
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.015

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10222-4: Steel forgings for pressure purposes - Part 4: Weldable fine-grain steels with high proof strength

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015