MakeItFrom.com
Menu (ESC)

EN 1.4123 (X40CrMoVN16-2) Stainless Bearing Steel

EN 1.4123 stainless steel is a martensitic stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1.4123 is the EN numeric designation for this material. X40CrMoVN16-2 is the EN chemical designation.

It has the highest embodied energy among wrought martensitic stainless steels. In addition, it has a moderately low electrical conductivity and a moderately high base cost.

The properties of EN 1.4123 stainless steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.4123 stainless steel to: wrought martensitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

220 to 250

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 28 x 106 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Shear Modulus

77 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

720 to 810 MPa 100 to 120 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

280 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

390 °C 740 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

840 °C 1540 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1450 °C 2640 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2560 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

23 W/m-K 13 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

10 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

2.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.8 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

10 % relative

Density

7.7 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

4.2 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

62 MJ/kg 27 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

120 L/kg 14 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

24

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

26 to 29 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

23 to 25 points

Thermal Diffusivity

6.3 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

26 to 29 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of EN 1.4123 stainless steel is notable for including vanadium (V). Vanadium has a strong hardening effect, but this effect is particularly sensitive to the type of tempering.

Iron (Fe) 76.7 to 84.6
Chromium (Cr) 14 to 16.5
Molybdenum (Mo) 1.0 to 2.5
Vanadium (V) 0 to 1.5
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 1.0
Carbon (C) 0.35 to 0.5
Nickel (Ni) 0 to 0.5
Nitrogen (N) 0.1 to 0.3
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.040
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.030

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ISO 683-17: Heat-treated steels, alloy steels and free-cutting steels - Part 17: Ball and roller bearing steels

EN 10088-3: Stainless steels - Part 3: Technical delivery conditions for semi-finished products, bars, rods, wire, sections and bright products of corrosion resisting steels for general purposes

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Stainless Steels, John C. Lippold and Damian J. Kotecki, 2005

EN 10088-1: Stainless steels - Part 1: List of stainless steels

Corrosion of Stainless Steels, A. John Sedriks, 1996

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015