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EN 1.8159 (51CrV4) Chromium-Vanadium Steel

EN 1.8159 steel is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1.8159 is the EN numeric designation for this material. 51CrV4 is the EN chemical designation. It has a moderately low melting temperature and a fairly high embodied energy among EN wrought alloy steels.

The properties of EN 1.8159 steel include six common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.8159 steel to: EN wrought alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

200 to 360

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

660 to 1980 MPa 95 to 290 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

420 °C 790 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2650 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1410 °C 2580 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

46 W/m-K 27 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.3 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.4 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.3 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

26 MJ/kg 11 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

52 L/kg 6.2 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

23 to 70 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

21 to 45 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

19 to 58 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of EN 1.8159 steel is notable for including vanadium (V) and containing a comparatively high amount of chromium (Cr). Vanadium has a strong hardening effect, but this effect is particularly sensitive to the type of tempering. Chromium is used to improve corrosion resistance and most mechanical properties (particularly at higher temperatures).

Iron (Fe) 96.4 to 97.8
Chromium (Cr) 0.9 to 1.2
Manganese (Mn) 0.7 to 1.1
Carbon (C) 0.47 to 0.55
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.4
Vanadium (V) 0.1 to 0.25
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.035
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.035

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10250-3: Open die steel forgings for general engineering purposes - Part 3: Alloy special steels

EN 10089: Hot rolled steels for quenched and tempered springs - Technical delivery conditions

Welding Metallurgy, 2nd ed., Sindo Kou, 2003

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015