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Grade VDSiCrV Spring Steel

Grade VDSiCrV steel is an alloy steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the hardened (H) condition. It has a very low density among EN wrought alloy steels. In addition, it has a very high tensile strength and a very low melting temperature.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare grade VDSiCrV steel to: EN wrought alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness


Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Poisson's Ratio


Reduction in Area

48 %

Shear Modulus

80 GPa 12 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

2100 MPa 300 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

420 °C 780 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1440 °C 2620 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1400 °C 2550 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

480 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

47 W/m-K 27 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

13 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.4 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.6 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.3 % relative


7.7 g/cm3 480 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

26 MJ/kg 11 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

50 L/kg 5.9 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

25 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

75 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

47 points

Thermal Diffusivity

13 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

63 points

Alloy Composition

Among alloy steels, the composition of grade VDSiCrV steel is notable for containing a comparatively high amount of silicon (Si). Silicon content is typically governed by metallurgical processing concerns, and not its effects on final material properties. However, it does have a modest strengthening effect.

Iron (Fe) 96.1 to 97.8
Silicon (Si) 1.2 to 1.7
Chromium (Cr) 0.5 to 1.0
Manganese (Mn) 0.4 to 0.9
Carbon (C) 0.5 to 0.7
Vanadium (V) 0.1 to 0.25
Copper (Cu) 0 to 0.060
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.020
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.020

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10270-2: Steel wire for mechanical spring - Part 2: Oil hardened and tempered spring steel wire

Manufacture and Uses of Alloy Steels, Henry D. Hibbard, 2005

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015