# Hot Rolled (+U) 1.0308 Steel

EN 1.0308 +U steel is EN 1.0308 steel in the hot worked condition. It has the highest strength and lowest ductility compared to the other variants of EN 1.0308 steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.0308 +U steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

130

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

7.8 *%*

Fatigue Strength

200 *MPa* 29 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

260 *MPa* 38 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

440 *MPa* 64 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

340 *MPa* 49 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 *°C* 750 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 *°C* 2670 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2590 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

51 *W/m-K* 29 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

12 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.1 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.1 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 *% relative*

Density

7.9 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.4 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

18 *MJ/kg* 7.9 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

46 *L/kg* 5.5 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

32 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

300 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

16 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

16 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

14 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

14 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 98.2 to 100 | |

Mn | 0 to 1.2 | |

Si | 0 to 0.35 | |

C | 0 to 0.17 | |

P | 0 to 0.045 | |

S | 0 to 0.045 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

EN 10296-1: Welded circular steel tubes for mechanical and general engineering purposes - Technical delivery conditions - Part 1: Non-alloy and alloy steel tubes

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015