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EN 1.0308 (E235) Non-Alloy Steel

EN 1.0308 steel is a carbon (non-alloy) steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1.0308 is the EN numeric designation for this material. E235 is the EN chemical designation. It can have a moderately low tensile strength among the wrought carbon or non-alloy steels in the database.

The properties of EN 1.0308 steel include three common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare EN 1.0308 steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

100 to 130

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

7.8 to 28 %

Fatigue Strength

140 to 200 MPa 20 to 29 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

230 to 260 MPa 34 to 38 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

360 to 440 MPa 52 to 64 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

190 to 340 MPa 27 to 49 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2670 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

51 W/m-K 29 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.1 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.1 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

18 MJ/kg 7.9 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

46 L/kg 5.5 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

32 to 95 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

93 to 300 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

13 to 16 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

14 to 16 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

11 to 14 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 98.2 to 100
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.2
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.35
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.17
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.045
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.045

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

EN 10296-1: Welded circular steel tubes for mechanical and general engineering purposes - Technical delivery conditions - Part 1: Non-alloy and alloy steel tubes

EN 10297-1: Seamless circular steel tubes for mechanical and general engineering purposes - Technical delivery conditions - Part 1: Non-alloy and alloy steel tubes

Microstructure of Steels and Cast Irons, Madeleine Durand-Charre, 2004

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015