Menu (ESC)

Monel 400 (NiCu30Fe, 2.4360, N04400, NA13)

Monel 400 is a nickel alloy formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 2.4360 is the EN numeric designation for this material. NiCu30Fe is the EN chemical designation. NA13 is the British Standard (BS) designation. N04400 is the UNS number. Monel 400 is the common industry name. Additionally, the AFNOR (French) designation is NU30.

It has a moderately low embodied energy among the wrought nickels in the database.

The properties of Monel 400 include three common variations. This page shows summary ranges across all of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare Monel 400 to: wrought nickels (top), all nickel alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

160 GPa 24 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

20 to 40 %

Fatigue Strength

230 to 290 MPa 34 to 42 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio


Shear Modulus

62 GPa 9.0 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

370 to 490 MPa 53 to 71 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

540 to 780 MPa 78 to 110 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

210 to 590 MPa 31 to 86 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Curie Temperature

40 °C 100 °F

Latent Heat of Fusion

270 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

1000 °C 1830 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1350 °C 2460 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1300 °C 2370 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

430 J/kg-K 0.1 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

23 W/m-K 13 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

14 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

3.3 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

3.4 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

50 % relative

Calomel Potential

-80 mV


8.9 g/cm3 550 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

7.9 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

110 MJ/kg 48 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

250 L/kg 30 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

140 to 180 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

140 to 1080 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

10 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

21 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

17 to 25 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

17 to 21 points

Thermal Diffusivity

6.1 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

17 to 25 points

Alloy Composition

Nickel (Ni)Ni 63 to 72
Copper (Cu)Cu 28 to 34
Iron (Fe)Fe 0 to 2.5
Manganese (Mn)Mn 0 to 2.0
Silicon (Si)Si 0 to 0.5
Carbon (C)C 0 to 0.3
Sulfur (S)S 0 to 0.024

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM B127: Standard Specification for Nickel-Copper Alloy (UNS N04400) Plate, Sheet, and Strip

ASTM B165: Standard Specification of Nickel-Copper Alloy (UNS N04400) Seamless Pipe and Tube

ASTM B725: Standard Specification for Welded Nickel (UNS N02200/UNS N02201) and Nickel Copper Alloy (UNS N04400) Pipe

ASTM B164: Standard Specification for Nickel-Copper Alloy Rod, Bar, and Wire

ASTM B564: Standard Specification for Nickel Alloy Forgings

Welding Metallurgy and Weldability of Nickel-Base Alloys, John C. Lippold et al., 2009

ASM Specialty Handbook: Nickel, Cobalt, and Their Alloys, Joseph R. Davis (editor), 2000

Engineering Properties of Nickel and Nickel Alloys, John L. Everhart, 1971

Nickel Alloys, Ulrich Heubner (editor), 1998

CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, 4th ed., James F. Shackelford et al. (editors), 2015