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Normalized (+N) 1.0034 Steel

EN 1.0034 +N steel is EN 1.0034 steel in the normalized condition. It has the highest ductility compared to the other variants of EN 1.0034 steel. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.0034 +N steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

97

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

32 %

Fatigue Strength

170 MPa 25 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

220 MPa 32 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

340 MPa 49 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

220 MPa 32 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2670 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

53 W/m-K 31 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.0 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.0 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 % relative

Density

7.9 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

18 MJ/kg 7.8 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

45 L/kg 5.4 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

95 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

130 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

12 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

14 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

11 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 98.7 to 100
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 0.7
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.35
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.15
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.045
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.045

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Further Reading

EN 10296-1: Welded circular steel tubes for mechanical and general engineering purposes - Technical delivery conditions - Part 1: Non-alloy and alloy steel tubes

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015