# Normalized (+N) 1.0038 Steel

EN 1.0038 +N steel is EN 1.0038 steel in the normalized condition. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare EN 1.0038 +N steel to: wrought carbon or non-alloy steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

110

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 *GPa* 27 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

23 *%*

Fatigue Strength

140 *MPa* 21 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Impact Strength: V-Notched Charpy

28 *J* 21 *ft-lb*

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Shear Modulus

73 *GPa* 11 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

240 *MPa* 35 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

380 *MPa* 55 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

200 *MPa* 29 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 *°C* 750 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 *°C* 2660 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 *°C* 2590 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

470 *J/kg-K* 0.11 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

49 *W/m-K* 28 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

12 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.2 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.3 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

2.1 *% relative*

Density

7.8 *g/cm ^{3}* 490

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

1.4 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

19 *MJ/kg* 8.1 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

48 *L/kg* 5.7 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

72 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

110 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

15 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

13 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

12 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Fe | 97.1 to 100 | |

Mn | 0 to 1.5 | |

Cu | 0 to 0.6 | |

Si | 0 to 0.55 | |

Cr | 0 to 0.3 | |

Ni | 0 to 0.3 | |

C | 0 to 0.23 | |

Mo | 0 to 0.080 | |

P | 0 to 0.045 | |

S | 0 to 0.045 | |

N | 0 to 0.014 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

EN 10025-2: Hot rolled products of structural steels - Part 2: Technical delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels

EN 10250-2: Open die steel forgings for general engineering purposes - Part 2: Non-alloy quality and special steels

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015