MakeItFrom.com
Menu (ESC)

SAE-AISI 1212 (G12120) Carbon Steel

SAE-AISI 1212 steel is a resulfurized carbon steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 1212 is the designation in both the SAE and AISI systems for this material. G12120 is the UNS number.

The properties of SAE-AISI 1212 steel include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare SAE-AISI 1212 steel to: wrought resulfurized carbon steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

140 to 180

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

190 GPa 27 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

11 to 28 %

Fatigue Strength

200 to 290 MPa 29 to 41 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.29

Reduction in Area

39 to 51 %

Shear Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

280 to 370 MPa 41 to 53 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

440 to 620 MPa 63 to 89 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

260 to 460 MPa 38 to 67 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

250 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

400 °C 750 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1460 °C 2660 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1420 °C 2590 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

52 W/m-K 30 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

12 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

7.0 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

8.1 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

1.8 % relative

Density

7.8 g/cm3 490 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

1.4 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

18 MJ/kg 7.8 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

46 L/kg 5.5 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

64 to 110 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

180 to 560 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

15 to 22 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

16 to 20 points

Thermal Diffusivity

14 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

14 to 20 points

Alloy Composition

Iron (Fe) 98.5 to 99.07
Manganese (Mn) 0.7 to 1.0
Sulfur (S) 0.16 to 0.23
Phosphorus (P) 0.070 to 0.12
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.13

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

Cold-Formed Steel Structures to the AISI Specification, Gregory J. Hancock et al., 2001

ASTM A29: Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot-Wrought, General Requirements for

Carbon Steel Handbook, D. Gandy, 2007

ASM Specialty Handbook: Carbon and Alloy Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1996

Ferrous Materials: Steel and Cast Iron, Hans Berns and Werner Theisen, 2008

Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 2nd ed., George Krauss, 2015