# Transformed-Beta Condition Grade 23 Titanium

Transformed-beta grade 23 titanium is grade 23 titanium in the transformed beta condition. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare transformed-beta grade 23 titanium to: wrought titaniums (top), all titanium alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

## Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 *GPa* 15 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Elongation at Break

6.7 *%*

Fatigue Strength

470 *MPa* 68 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Poisson's Ratio

0.32

Reduction in Area

30 *%*

Rockwell C Hardness

32

Shear Modulus

40 *GPa* 5.8 *x 10 ^{6} psi*

Shear Strength

540 *MPa* 79 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

930 *MPa* 130 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

870 *MPa* 130 *x 10 ^{3} psi*

## Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

410 *J/g*

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

340 *°C* 640 *°F*

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1610 *°C* 2930 *°F*

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1560 *°C* 2840 *°F*

Specific Heat Capacity

560 *J/kg-K* 0.13 *BTU/lb-°F*

Thermal Conductivity

7.1 *W/m-K* 4.1 *BTU/h-ft-°F*

Thermal Expansion

9.4 *µm/m-K*

## Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

1.0 *% IACS*

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.0 *% IACS*

## Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

36 *% relative*

Density

4.4 *g/cm ^{3}* 280

*lb/ft*

^{3}Embodied Carbon

38 *kg CO _{2}/kg material*

Embodied Energy

610 *MJ/kg* 260 *x 10 ^{3} BTU/lb*

Embodied Water

200 *L/kg* 23 *gal/lb*

## Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

61 *MJ/m ^{3}*

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

3560 *kJ/m ^{3}*

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 *points*

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

35 *points*

Strength to Weight: Axial

58 *points*

Strength to Weight: Bending

48 *points*

Thermal Diffusivity

2.9 *mm ^{2}/s*

Thermal Shock Resistance

67 *points*

## Alloy Composition

Ti | 88.1 to 91 | |

Al | 5.5 to 6.5 | |

V | 3.5 to 4.5 | |

Fe | 0 to 0.25 | |

O | 0 to 0.13 | |

C | 0 to 0.080 | |

N | 0 to 0.030 | |

H | 0 to 0.013 | |

res. | 0 to 0.4 |

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

## Followup Questions

## Further Reading

ISO 5832-3: Implants for surgery - Metallic materials - Part 3: Wrought titanium 6-aluminium 4-vanadium alloy

Titanium Alloys: Modelling of Microstructure, Properties, and Applications, Wei Sha and Savko Malinov, 2009

ASTM B861: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Seamless Pipe

ASTM B381: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings

ASTM B265: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate

ASTM B348: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets

Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Christoph Leyens and Manfred Peters (editors), 2003

Titanium, 2nd ed., G. Lutjering and J. C. Williams, 2007

Environmental Degradation of Advanced and Traditional Engineering Materials, Lloyd H. Hihara et al., 2014.