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Grade 23 (Ti-6Al-4V ELI, R56407) Titanium

Grade 23 titanium is a titanium alloy formulated for primary forming into wrought products. R56407 is the UNS number for this material. Additionally, the ASTM designation is Titanium Grade 23.

It has a fairly low density among wrought titaniums. In addition, it has a moderately high heat capacity and a moderately low melting temperature.

The properties of grade 23 titanium include two common variations. This page shows summary ranges across both of them. For more specific values, follow the links immediately below. The graph bars on the material properties cards further below compare grade 23 titanium to: wrought titaniums (top), all titanium alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 15 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

6.7 to 11 %

Fatigue Strength

470 to 500 MPa 68 to 72 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.32

Reduction in Area

30 %

Rockwell C Hardness

32

Shear Modulus

40 GPa 5.8 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

540 to 570 MPa 79 to 82 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

930 to 940 MPa 130 to 140 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

850 to 870 MPa 120 to 130 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

410 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

340 °C 640 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1610 °C 2930 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1560 °C 2840 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

560 J/kg-K 0.13 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

7.1 W/m-K 4.1 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

9.4 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

1.0 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

2.0 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

36 % relative

Density

4.4 g/cm3 280 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

38 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

610 MJ/kg 260 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

200 L/kg 23 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

61 to 100 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

3430 to 3560 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

13 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

35 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

58 to 59 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

48 points

Thermal Diffusivity

2.9 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

67 to 68 points

Alloy Composition

Titanium (Ti) 88.1 to 91
Aluminum (Al) 5.5 to 6.5
Vanadium (V) 3.5 to 4.5
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.25
Oxygen (O) 0 to 0.13
Carbon (C) 0 to 0.080
Nitrogen (N) 0 to 0.030
Hydrogen (H) 0 to 0.013
Residuals 0 to 0.4

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ISO 5832-3: Implants for surgery - Metallic materials - Part 3: Wrought titanium 6-aluminium 4-vanadium alloy

Titanium Alloys: Modelling of Microstructure, Properties, and Applications, Wei Sha and Savko Malinov, 2009

ASTM B861: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Seamless Pipe

ASTM B381: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Forgings

ASTM B265: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate

ASTM B348: Standard Specification for Titanium and Titanium Alloy Bars and Billets

Titanium and Titanium Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications, Christoph Leyens and Manfred Peters (editors), 2003

Titanium, 2nd ed., G. Lutjering and J. C. Williams, 2007

Environmental Degradation of Advanced and Traditional Engineering Materials, Lloyd H. Hihara et al., 2014.