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UNS C92900 Leaded Gear Bronze

C92900 bronze is a bronze formulated for casting. Cited properties are appropriate for the as-fabricated (no temper or treatment) condition. C92900 is the UNS number for this material. Older literature may refer to this material as ASTM Gear Bronze Type D, but this is now discouraged.

It has a fairly high embodied energy among cast bronzes. In addition, it has a moderately high base cost and a moderately low electrical conductivity.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare C92900 bronze to: cast bronzes (top), all copper alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

84

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

110 GPa 16 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

9.1 %

Poisson's Ratio

0.34

Shear Modulus

40 GPa 5.8 x 106 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

350 MPa 51 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

190 MPa 28 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

190 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

170 °C 340 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1030 °C 1890 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

860 °C 1570 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

370 J/kg-K 0.088 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

58 W/m-K 34 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Expansion

18 µm/m-K

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

9.0 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

9.2 % IACS

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

35 % relative

Density

8.8 g/cm3 550 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

3.8 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

61 MJ/kg 26 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

390 L/kg 46 gal/lb

Common Calculations

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

27 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

170 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

6.8 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

18 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

11 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

13 points

Thermal Diffusivity

18 mm2/s

Thermal Shock Resistance

13 points

Alloy Composition

Among cast copper alloys, the composition of C92900 bronze is notable for containing comparatively high amounts of lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni). Lead is used to improve machinability and bearing properties, at the cost of toxicity. It also adds pressure tightness to castings. Nickel is used to improve strength (particularly at elevated temperatures) and corrosion resistance. It also creates the need for additional care during casting.

Copper (Cu) 82 to 86
Tin (Sn) 9.0 to 11
Nickel (Ni) 2.8 to 4.0
Lead (Pb) 2.0 to 3.2
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 1.5
Zinc (Zn) 0 to 0.25
Antimony (Sb) 0 to 0.25
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.2
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.050
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.0050
Aluminum (Al) 0 to 0.0050
Residuals 0 to 0.7

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

ASTM B427: Standard Specification for Gear Bronze Alloy Castings

ASTM B505: Standard Specification for Copper Alloy Continuous Castings

ASM Specialty Handbook: Copper and Copper Alloys, J. R. Davis (editor), 2001