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UNS S33228 Stainless Steel

S33228 stainless steel is a superaustenitic (highly alloyed) stainless steel formulated for primary forming into wrought products. Cited properties are appropriate for the annealed condition.

It has a moderately high base cost among wrought superaustenitic stainless steels. In addition, it has a moderately low ductility and a moderately high embodied energy.

The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare S33228 stainless steel to: wrought superaustenitic stainless steels (top), all iron alloys (middle), and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means it's 50% of the highest, and so on.

Mechanical Properties

Brinell Hardness

190

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

200 GPa 29 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

34 %

Fatigue Strength

170 MPa 24 x 103 psi

Poisson's Ratio

0.28

Reduction in Area

39 %

Rockwell B Hardness

82

Shear Modulus

79 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Shear Strength

380 MPa 55 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

570 MPa 83 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

210 MPa 30 x 103 psi

Thermal Properties

Latent Heat of Fusion

310 J/g

Maximum Temperature: Corrosion

560 °C 1050 °F

Maximum Temperature: Mechanical

1100 °C 2010 °F

Melting Completion (Liquidus)

1410 °C 2560 °F

Melting Onset (Solidus)

1360 °C 2480 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

470 J/kg-K 0.11 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Expansion

16 µm/m-K

Otherwise Unclassified Properties

Base Metal Price

37 % relative

Density

8.0 g/cm3 500 lb/ft3

Embodied Carbon

6.2 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

89 MJ/kg 38 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

220 L/kg 27 gal/lb

Common Calculations

PREN (Pitting Resistance)

27

Resilience: Ultimate (Unit Rupture Work)

150 MJ/m3

Resilience: Unit (Modulus of Resilience)

110 kJ/m3

Stiffness to Weight: Axial

14 points

Stiffness to Weight: Bending

24 points

Strength to Weight: Axial

20 points

Strength to Weight: Bending

19 points

Thermal Shock Resistance

13 points

Alloy Composition

Among wrought stainless steels, the composition of S33228 stainless steel is notable for including cerium (Ce) and containing a comparatively high amount of chromium (Cr). Cerium is used to improve high temperature oxidation resistance. Chromium is the defining alloying element of stainless steel. Higher chromium content imparts additional corrosion resistance.

Iron (Fe) 36.5 to 42.3
Nickel (Ni) 31 to 33
Chromium (Cr) 26 to 28
Niobium (Nb) 0.6 to 1.0
Manganese (Mn) 0 to 1.0
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.3
Cerium (Ce) 0.050 to 0.1
Carbon (C) 0.040 to 0.080
Aluminum (Al) 0 to 0.025
Phosphorus (P) 0 to 0.020
Sulfur (S) 0 to 0.015

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

Metallic Materials: Physical, Mechanical, and Corrosion Properties, Philip A. Schweitzer, 2003

ASTM A479: Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

ASTM A182: Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service

ASTM A240: Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

ASTM A959: Standard Guide for Specifying Harmonized Standard Grade Compositions for Wrought Stainless Steels

Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels: Mechanism, Mitigation and Monitoring, H. S. Khatak and B. Raj (editors), 2002

Pressure Vessels: External Pressure Technology, 2nd ed., Carl T. F. Ross, 2011

Austenitic Stainless Steels: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties, P. Marshall, 1984

ASM Specialty Handbook: Stainless Steels, J. R. Davis (editor), 1994

Advances in Stainless Steels, Baldev Raj et al. (editors), 2010