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2024 (AlCu4Mg1, 3.1355, 2L97, A92024) Aluminum

2024 aluminum is a 2000-series aluminum alloy: the main alloying addition is copper, and it is formulated for primary forming into wrought products. 2024 is the Aluminum Association (AA) designation for this material. In European standards, it will typically be given as EN AW-2024. AlCu4Mg1 is the EN chemical designation. A92024 is the UNS number. And 2L97 is the British Standard (BS) designation.

It has been in use since 1931, but has only received its standard designation in 1954. This material is well established. The Further Reading section below cites a number of published standards, and that list is not necessarily exhaustive.

It can have the highest tensile strength relative to other 2000-series alloys in the database.

It has 19 common variants, each represented as a separate material. The material properties section shows ranges encompassing all variants. To see the details of each variant on a separate page, follow the links in the Variant Materials section further below.

Mechanical Properties

Graph bars compare 2024 aluminum to other materials. From top to bottom: AA 2000 series (aluminum-copper wrought alloy), aluminum alloys, and the entire database.

Elastic (Young's, Tensile) Modulus

73 GPa 11 x 106 psi

Elongation at Break

4.0 to 16 %

Modulus of Resilience (Unit Resilience)

65 to 1690 kJ/m3

Poisson's Ratio

0.33

Shear Modulus

28 GPa 4.0 x 106 psi

Strength to Weight Ratio

64 to 180 kN-m/kg

Tensile Strength: Ultimate (UTS)

190 to 550 MPa 28 to 80 x 103 psi

Tensile Strength: Yield (Proof)

98 to 500 MPa 14 to 72 x 103 psi

Unit Rupture Work (Ultimate Resilience)

20 to 70 MJ/m3

Thermal Properties

Melting Onset (Solidus)

500 °C 930 °F

Specific Heat Capacity

880 J/kg-K 0.21 BTU/lb-°F

Thermal Conductivity

120 W/m-K 70 BTU/h-ft-°F

Thermal Diffusivity

46 m2/s

Thermal Expansion

22 µm/m-K

Other Material Properties

Base Metal Price

17 % relative

Calomel Potential

-600 mV

Density

3.0 g/cm3 190 lb/ft3

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Volume

30 % IACS

Electrical Conductivity: Equal Weight (Specific)

90 % IACS

Electrical Resistivity Order of Magnitude

-7.0 10x Ω-m

Embodied Carbon

8.3 kg CO2/kg material

Embodied Energy

150 MJ/kg 65 x 103 BTU/lb

Embodied Water

1140 L/kg 140 gal/lb

Alloy Composition

Aluminum (Al) 90.7 to 94.7
Copper (Cu) 3.8 to 4.9
Magnesium (Mg) 1.2 to 1.8
Manganese (Mn) 0.3 to 0.9
Silicon (Si) 0 to 0.5
Iron (Fe) 0 to 0.5
Zinc (Zn) 0 to 0.25
Zirconium (Zr) 0 to 0.2
Titanium (Ti) 0 to 0.15
Chromium (Cr) 0 to 0.1
Residuals 0 to 0.15

All values are % weight. Ranges represent what is permitted under applicable standards.

Followup Questions

Publications

Variant Materials

Similar Alloys

Further Reading

Aluminum Standards and Data, Aluminum Association Inc., 2013

ASTM B209: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Sheet and Plate

ASTM B210: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes

ASTM B211: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Bar, Rod, and Wire

ASTM B221: Standard Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy Extruded Bars, Rods, Wire, Profiles, and Tubes

EN 485-2: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Sheet, strip and plate. Mechanical properties

EN 573-3: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Chemical composition and form of wrought products. Chemical composition and form of products

EN 586-2: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Forgings. Mechanical properties and additional property requirements.

EN 754-2: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Cold drawn rod/bar and tube. Mechanical properties

EN 755-2: Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Extruded rod/bar, tube and profiles. Mechanical properties